Although the attackers were fellow Christians, the cultural differences that had developed during the long separation of the eastern and western churches meant that the sacking of the city was especially brutal. Also, alone in Europe until the 13th-century Italian , the Empire continued to produce sound gold coinage, the of becoming the prized throughout the Middle Ages. Interior of the from Italy , decorated with elaborate and glamorous mosaics Byzantine architecture is the of the , or Eastern Roman Empire. When the Byzantine struggle against the Turkish failed, Seljuk Turks had the chance to take over great parts of Eastern and Central Anatolia. There was no official church blueprint imposed by the church hierarchy, but the cross-in-square plan became the most common with a dome built over four supporting arches.
Like Rome it was built on 7 hills and by the 10th century, the city had grown to be the largest and wealthiest city in Europe with perhaps as many as 500,000 people living it. Desiring to get his fleet into the Golden Horn, Mehmed ordered that several ships be rolled across Galata on greased logs two days later. The apse of the church with cross at. Many scholars argue that these sophisticated fortifications allowed the east to develop relatively unmolested while and collapsed. From there the Mese passed on and through the and then the , and finally up the Seventh Hill or Xerolophus and through to the Golden Gate in the. The Ottoman Empire ruled Istanbul until it was defeated and occupied by the Allies in World War I. Licensed Tour Guide Serhat Engul Constantinople Tours By A Private Tour Guide serhateng gmail.
Toward the end of 's reign, the number of foreigners in the city reached about 60,000—80,000 people out of a total population of about 400,000 people. They wasted the money of the Empire and reduced her army. The Byzantine Empire used Roman and Greek architectural models and styles to create its own unique type of architecture. Having taken the city, Mehmed allowed his men to plunder its riches for three days. In Arabic, the city was sometimes called Rūmiyyat al-kubra Great City of the Romans and in Persian as Takht-e Rum Throne of the Romans. Under the rulers of the Latin Empire, the city declined, both in population and the condition of its buildings.
From the mid-5th century to the early 13th century, Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest city in Europe and it was instrumental in the advancement of during Roman and Byzantine times as the home of the and as the guardian of Christendom's holiest relics such as the and the. The is often cited as an archetypal structure of the late period, when the exterior walls were intricately decorated with complex brickwork patterns or with glazed ceramics. Nicaea and Epirus both vied for the imperial title, and tried to recover Constantinople. The Split Of Roman Empire By Emperor Theodosios Map 395 A. Madden, Crusades: The Illustrated History, 114. He would later rebuild Byzantium towards the end of his reign, in which it would be briefly renamed Augusta Antonina, fortifying it with a new city wall in his name, the Severan Wall. To prevent a naval attack against the Golden Horn walls, he directed that a large chain be stretched across the mouth of the harbor to block Ottoman ships from entering.
Emperor I began the process of better defending Constantinople by extending the sea walls and building a new land wall across the peninsula on which the capital stood. . This effort caused the imperial treasury be consumed away. The cost to both sides was high. The first Crusades were a marriage of convenience for a Christendom divided between the rival Eastern Orthodox and Western Catholic churches.
The emperor stimulated private building by promising householders gifts of land from the imperial estates in and and on 18 May 332 he announced that, as in Rome, free distributions of food would be made to the citizens. Both of the domes collapsed at different times throughout history due to earthquakes and had to be rebuilt. They took serious precautions to put the Byzantine Empire back on track. Later, the Byzantines relied on , soldiers who fought for money and not for their country, so they were less loyal and reliable and more expensive. She subdued the Slavs of the Balkans and laid the foundations of Byzantine expansion and re-Hellenization in the area. Afterward, many of its most outstanding monuments, one of which was the Hagia Sophia, were constructed during the city's rebuilding, and Constantinople became the center of the Greek Orthodox Church. At its peak, roughly corresponding to the Middle Ages, it was the richest and largest European city, exerting a powerful cultural pull and dominating economic life in the Mediterranean.
In the course of a plot between , and the , the was, despite papal excommunication, diverted in 1203 against Constantinople, ostensibly promoting the claims of Alexius, son of the deposed emperor Isaac. Constantine divided the expanded city, like Rome, into 14 regions, and ornamented it with public works worthy of an imperial metropolis. Yet it had been the capital of the state for over a thousand years, and it might have seemed unthinkable to suggest that the capital be moved to a different location. Palestine, Syria and Egypt were lost between 635 and 645. Because they had mercenaries, military generals were able to rise to power and grab it from the elaborate , a system of administration where tasks are divided by departments. The peak point of the Empire was the era of the Emperor Justinian who built. And in the past they used to play by magic.
From there the Mese passed on and through the and then the , and finally up the Seventh Hill or Xerolophus and through to the Golden Gate in the. The city was virtually depopulated when it fell to the , but recovered rapidly, and was, by the mid-1600s, once again the world's largest city as the new capital of the Ottoman Empire. Triveliy rendered decisive help, largely due to him the city was saved; he was called Saviour of Europe. It was from Constantinople that his expedition for the reconquest of the former Diocese of Africa set sail on or about 21 June 533. At a point just south of the Blachernae quarter, a section called the Mesoteichion, the walls dip sharply into the Lycus Valley, exposing that area to enfilading fire from higher ground on the enemy side.