. In this context the historian Falk Pingel distinguished between the experiences that the prisoners made in the concentration camps and their qualities and abilities which they learned before their imprisonment and which they brought into the camps. Umumnya memiliki booklet yang tebal tidak seperti booklet single. What monstrosity let this happen? Hirsh Glik was deported from the Vilna ghetto to a camp in Estonia where he died in 1944. Some of these lasted only for a short time; others lasted longer; some rehearsed regularly, others only as opportunity arose; some performed spontaneously, while others performed concerts where the artistic standard was very high. Berichte und Erzählungen von Veteranen der Arbeiterbewegung aus der Zeit von 1914-1945, ed. Spontaneous Music Most musical activities in concentration camps and extermination camps took place without much preparation: groups of friends and acquaintances struck up spontaneously.
These so-called concentration camp songs were either newly composed or else variations on existing songs. Conclusions The preceding examples — and the list could easily be extended — demonstrate impressively that music played an integral part in the daily life of the Nazi concentration camps. Time was short, and daily life in the camps was characterized by fear and uncertainty. This was vital, because hopelessness was one of the greatest dangers in the camp. Eine politische Organisationsgeschichte Hamburg, 1999 , 192-198. Block Performances In contrast to the spontaneous music the so-called block performances Blockveranstaltungen generally took place in accommodation huts or barracks with a large number of participants, and they required a certain amount of organization and preparation.
Music was also played by instrumentalists. After the reorganization of the camp system— when the first generation of concentration camps was dissolved with the exception of Dachau and after 1936 replaced by new, larger ones— there were prisoner orchestras still before the war in Sachsenhausen as a continuation of the band at Esterwegen , Buchenwald and Dachau. Some orchestras had to play directly in connection with the so-called selection process: this was supposed to deceive the newly-arriving prisoners into thinking that they did not face immediate death. Furthermore it is not known that the killing process itself, that is the mass murder in the gas chambers, took place immediately under the sounds of music. As stated before, this musical life originated from specific traditions and circumstances.
Here for instance secret resistance committees were established or respected political prisoners took on informal leadership roles within the camp such as camp elder Lagerältester or camp scribe Lagerschreiber. Besides these songs, many concentration camps had their own special anthem which served as a sort of official signature tune for the camp. Prison personnel abused inmate musicians for their own purposes. Also the prisoners did not only form a homogeneous mass without individual differences or reaction. Music Initiated by the Prisoners In contrast to the previously mentioned examples of forced music-making, the detainees also played and composed music on their own initiative, for themselves and their fellow inmates.
Nevertheless it spread throughout the camp system as prisoners were transferred to other camps. They consisted of different numbers or sketches, with vocal or instrumental musical interludes. Thus, those involved in the camp ensembles often formed other music groups, and maximum use was made of the available instruments. Other Titles: Produzione musicale nei campi di concentramento 1933-1945 Music composed in concentration camps 1933-1945 Musik in den Konzentrationslagern 1933- 1945 Responsibility: Francesco Lotoro, pianist, organist, conductor. Künstlerische Dokumente aus faschistischen Konzentrationslagern, ed.
Ehemals Präsident des Deutschen Reichstages und Alterspräsident des 1. This kind of music could only be played in secret, and at the constant risk of being discovered and punished. Within the limited freedom granted by the camp guards and the functionaries, prisoners assembled a wide array of musical shows. Large-scale performances like these, often reaching hundreds of prisoners, were intended to counter a demoralizing tendency among the prisoners. This reference provides text, photographs, charts, maps, and extensive indexes. Köln 1988, see 165-186, quote on 165. This drawing was made secretly in Birkenau by François Reisz.
Ein Konzentrationslager vor den Toren Danzigs, transl. In Majdanek, an extermination camp, a prisoner from the Operetta Theater in Vilna started singing arias from operas, songs from operettas, and Russian and Ukrainian songs. Christian clergy imprisoned in Dachau, also played a special role in keeping up musical activities once the camp commander had granted permission in the early 1940s to say mass or hold services. From 1936 onwards, the entire concentration camp system was re-organized: the early camps, with the exception of Dachau, were dismantled and replaced by newer, bigger ones. At a block in Buchenwald where a cinema had been installed, between August 1943 and December 1944, a total of 27 so-called 'concerts' were held, comprising exhibits, sketches and artistic performances, as well as cabaret and theatre excerpts performed by various inmate groups.
In conclusion, I will discuss in somewhat more detail, the various forms these activities typically took. Bericht einer Überlebenden Reinbek, 1988 , 37. The huge crowd enjoying this rare musical treat shows clearly how important it was for prisoners to be able to organize a musical performance like this published in Kopf hoch, Kamerad! This event encompassed music, humour and artistry as a means of 'general encouragement' to the inmates. It shows a work detail leaving Auschwitz: in the background a prisoner can be seen conducting the camp orchestra published in M. Nationale Mahn- und Gedenkstätte Buchenwald Weimar, 1973 , 103-107; Sonja Seidel, Kultur und Kunst im antifaschistischen Widerstandskampf im Konzentrationslager Buchenwald, 12-15; Sonja Staar, Kunst, Widerstand und Lagerkultur. Contrary to widespread opinion, these activities were illegal only in some instances, not all.