Detector array nyquist frequency 209 -- 8. The dust jacket for hard covers may not be included. Photons striking a silicon surface create free electrons through the photoelectric effect. Sampling theorem 202 -- 8. The image is split up into 2 or 4 different sections and read-out as shown below. The advantage is not free, however, as the imaging area is now covered by opaque strips dropping the to approximately 50 percent and the effective by an equivalent amount. Charge conversion output structure 82 -- 3.
A back-illuminated device, which needs optical wavelength sensitivity, must have an additional coating for proper function. The gate is held at a positive charge in relation to the rest of the device, which attracts the electrons to it. These advances in low-light detection lead to an effective total background noise of 0. Target transfer probability function 318 -- 12. The clocking of the gates, alternately high and low, will forward and reverse bias the diode that is provided by the buried channel n-doped and the epitaxial layer p-doped. The Compact series provides 1D and 2D capability and various gain options, as well as on-board data processing. Color displays 176 -- 7.
Minimum signal 102 -- 4. Note that cooling to around —100°C nearly removes the noise generated from dark current. Later in the process, gates are deposited by , patterned with , and etched in such a way that the separately phased gates lie perpendicular to the channels. Image Quality 275 -- 11. Channel stops are thermally grown that serve to isolate the charge packets in one column from those in another.
Shade's equivalent resolution 285 -- 11. Microlenses can bring the fill factor back up to 90 percent or more depending on pixel size and the overall system's optical design. Analog resolution metrics 279 -- 11. Micro-Hybrid introduces their high sensitivity thermopile line array for gas analysis and infrared spectroscopy. The average of images taken with the shutter closed is necessary to lower the random noise. Color correction 138 -- 5. The accumulation of electrons at or near the surface can proceed either until image integration is over and charge begins to be transferred, or thermal equilibrium is reached.
Dark current 73 -- 3. Johnson criteria 317 -- 12. Photons incident on this surface generate charge that can be read by electronics and turned into a digital copy of the light patterns falling on the device. Calibration sources 32 -- 2. Once the array has been exposed to the image, a control circuit causes each capacitor to transfer its contents to its neighbor operating as a shift register. Linear arrays 54 -- 3.
In this way, the telescope can image a larger region of the sky than its normal field of view. Correlated double sampling 83 -- 3. The probability distribution for the number of output electrons is plotted on the vertical axis for a simulation of a multiplication register. Consumer snap-shot cameras have used interline devices. Radiative transfer 17 -- 2. This array is set up for bi-directional operation. Now that the electrons are held in place, they need to be moved to where the light signal they represent can be quantified.
Pattern noise 113 -- 4. Image quality 11 -- 2. This translates into an unparalleled large field of view, which allows you to capture more of your sample with each single shot while exploiting the full resolution of your objectives. For larger ducts, an array of pitots, with manifolded total and static pressure lines, can be installed to ensure an equal area traversing and. Range prediction methodology 320 -- 12. Sampling Theory 199 -- 8.
Resolution metrics 277 -- 11. The gain register is split up into a large number of stages. Gamma compensation 142 -- 5. After the exposure time is passed, the cells are read out one line at a time. Minimum Resolvable Contrast 293 -- 12.
Reset noise 109 -- 4. A mechanical shutter must be added to this type of sensor or the image smears as the device is clocked or read out. During the process of , several frames of the scene are produced. Off-chip amplifier noise 111 -- 4. Full-frame arrays 55 -- 3.
To take long exposures of galaxies and nebulae, many astronomers use a technique known as. Below is a table demonstrating some of the advantages of the more common detectors available. This removes the noise associated with the stochastic multiplication at the risk of counting multiple electrons in the same pixel as a single electron. The is the most famous example of this, using the technique to a survey of over a quarter of the sky. However, at very low light levels where the quantum efficiency is most important , it can be assumed that a pixel either contains an electron — or not. Today, frame-transfer is usually chosen when an interline architecture is not available, such as in a back-illuminated device.