This edition is the revised and enlarged edition, originally published in 1925. The young Sun god in the lotus blossom. The part assigned by the Egyptians t o the moon god, the representative of Re by night, is far less important. To the great group of such gods of inferior rank belong the sacred animals, of whom traces can be found in the temples as early as the Old Kingdom. Few gods are so famous as he is, and yet his origin is entirely unknown to us. The usual abode of the god was his chapel, in the last and most sacred apartment of the temple.
The decorations of the temple were essentially the same in all cases. This was the essential part of a temple; naturally there would be various additional chambers to contain the sacred utensils, and for special purposes of the religious cults. H e was regarded by artists and artisans as their patron. With the help of modern archaeological findings, Osman shows that Christianity survived as an Egyptian mystery cult until the fourth century A. I n Abydos the gods who issued from the mouth of Re himself were not Shu and Tefnet, but Shu and the frog goddess Hekt, the progenitors of the gods. To his credit, Budge was not as condescending about Egyptian religion as some of his contemporaries though that attitude shows up more in the companion volume, Egyptian Magic.
This god in whose following ye are, reports to you nothing evil about me. Behold, I come to you, without sin, without evil. Like many Egyptologists of his time, Budge was attached to the idea that a single monotheistic god lay behind the obvious polytheism of Egyptian religion. From the grave inscriptions we learn of one method of disposing of it which can only have been a make-believe. Again, his supply of air may fail. You are not concerned with m e , ye speak the truth concerning me before the lord of all. These ideas were inherited by the Egyptians of historical times, the subjects of Cheops, Amenemhat and Ramses, who preserved them for us.
Isis statue found a t Cologne. As early as the beginning of the New Empire, they appear t o have played at any rate a considerable part in politics. It is otherwise with the poet of the New Empire; he knows that he is a guilty man and prays to his god : Chastise me not according to my many sins. The forms of these various divinities we have sketched here do not correspond with the actual beginnings of Egyptian religion, for t o that we have no clue, but only to a very ancient official form which survives in the cults, and also in the carvings and inscriptions of the temples. Masyero, Etudes de Mythologie, p. The two immediate successors of Kheops built on the same gigantic scale as their predecessor, but all later monarchs of the Old Kingdom and among them were some who reigned long contented themselves with pyramids of relatively small size. Egypt and the red land as the representative of Har-alchte.
He describes in detail the wrapping and burying of mummies, the attendants to the tombs and the dead, drawings and hieroglyphs found on tomb walls, coffins and sarcophagi, treasures buried with the dead, and scarabs, among other things. There is, moreover, one point which is very characteristic of the Book of the Dead ; for the most part it was regarded entirely as a collection of magic formula Should such and such an event happen to the deceased, he utters a spell, in which he identifies himself with such and such a god, in the belief that he will by this means become possessed of his attributes. They have a large population of gods, of spirits, and of the dead. Finally he fed the god, by setting before him a variety of food and drink, bread, geese, haunch of beef, wine and water. Let those who mill believe in Ptali and I-Iathor, Osiris and Isis, but for the loyal subjects of the king there must henceforth be only the one god whom he worshippcd. The Egyptian religion appeals to some because of its endless variety of form, and the many phases of superstition and belief that it represents ; to others because of its early recognition of a high moral principle, its elaborate conceptions of a life after death, and its connection with the development of Christianity ; to others again no doubt because it explains pretty things dear to the collector of antiquities, and familiar objects in museums.
The goddess who presides over the rapids of Elephantine purijes him with four pitchers of water: or he bathes togetlzer with Re in the lake of Earzc : Horus dries his body, Thoth dries his feet? Where all the gods are so confused nothing really remains of the ancient Egyptian religion except the external form; the names and figures of the gods are still there, but what they represent are only varying aspects of the universe, and so far this teaching may actually be called pantheistic. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works. The beard was a plaited tress with the end turned up, similar to 1;hat worn a t the present day by the tribes of Central Africa. The author has written a special preface for the English edition, and has modified one or two points in his text as regards the degree in which burnt sacrifice was customary. But the later hymn knows nothing of the ancient name of the sun god, of his crowns, sceptres, and sacred cities. I have not done that which the gods abhor. It was perfectly natural that the jackal should be considered the animal of the god of the dead ; in the desert where the dead were buried, these animals might be seen every evening, prowling about in the dusk.
Baal, Astarte and Anat, moreover, were often introduced as similes in the poetry of royal inscriptions : Astarte appears in the myths,l and eventually in a late form of the tradition of Horus of Edfu, she appears as his wife. For there is no lack of enemies to oppose the progress of the sun, and one of these, Apophis, the cloud and Book of the Dead. I n order to understand them it is necessary to transport ourselves t o that far-distant infancy of the Egyptian nation, when the inhabitant of the Nile Valley gazed with awe on the ever-moving bodies in the heavens above him, and in those marvellous phenomena recognized the gods who ruled the world. Oh discriminator, Ihou dost discviminate between the nations. Here again this attribute of Min is certainly not his original one. His pages are particularly free from theory, and no theory is needed to enga,oe our attention when the facts and views disclosed are so attractive.
Thousands of years had passed since the old days, when the Egyptian built a primitive temple to his local god, and with his family sought to propitiate him by means of various gifts, in order to secure him help and protection. Gravestone of a Syrian Queen, from Senjirli Jewawmelek, king of Byblos, before the goddess of Byblos. Budge excavated and deciphered numerous cuneiform and hieroglyphic documents, contributing vastly to the museum's collection. As we have said, for the greater number of these clerics the piiesthood was only a subsidiary occupation ; they formed the hourly priesthood of the temple or, as we may perhaps express it, alternating priests, who were divided into four sets, and alternately relieved each other in their duties. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition.
And it is as a protection against such evil beings that Bes is particularly confided in. According to the Book of him who is in the tmder-worldusually called Amduat-the under-world is divided into twelve parts, which correspond to the twelve hours, and are spoken of asJields or cuverns. Although from the first he was destined for the office of apriest, up to his fifteenth year he received, in common with other youths of rank, a military training as overseer of the stables to the king. And m e n reckon that they may know the month; and work addition, that they may know thy time. Fate also decreed that these kings who had raised Amon-Re to such prominence should also allot him a degree of power which had hitherto been quite unexampled in Egypt.
I n the tenth hour a beetle had alighted close to Re ; nowiin the cavern End of the dawn, the sun bark is dragged through a serpent 1,300 cubits long, and when at last he emerges out of the jaws of the serpent, the sun god himself has become this beetle. Geb and Shu stand against thee. Gravestone of a Syrian woman, Akhet-abu From an ancient Cretan stone vase. Above this shaft a rectangular mass of stone blocks was raised, faced with blocks of hewn stone, so that the mastaba resembled in appearance a stone building with sloping walls. The idea of the appointed fate of man seems to have been widely 1 At Cairo. A strange curse lay on the Egyptians : they could not forget.